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BONAMPAK - Chiapas, Mexico
Bonampak (painted walls) is a medium sized Maya archaeological zone set amidst the Lacandon Jungle, and is one of a number of ruins spread throughout the valleys between the Rio Lacanha and Rio Usumacinta systems. It is best known for its fabulously, colorful murals depicting Mayan scenes of dynastic ritual and warfare. Along with the recently excavated murals at Calakmul, San Bartolo, and those at Chichen Itza, these are among the best preserved murals in the Maya area.
The murals are located within a small temple and are able to be viewed by the public. Temperature and humidity are strictly controlled, and depending on the number of visitors, the time allowed to view the murals may be limited.
Only a small portion of the 1 sq mile/2 sq km site has been excavated and open to the public. This consists mainly of the Grand Plaza with its surrounding structures, and the Acropolis. The site is built among a series of low terraced hills with the Acropolis being built into the hillside itself.
Bonampak lies just off the main road southwest from Palenque past Champa and before the turnoff to Frontera Corozal. This area of Mexico is a bit remote. Check security conditions before leaving either Palenque or San Cristobal de las Casas.
HOURS: 8 A.M-4:45 P.M.
ENTRANCE FEE: U.S. $4.25/80 Pesos
ON-SITE MUSEUM: Yes
ACCOMMODATIONS: Lodging and tours can be found in Frontera Corozal
GPS: 16d 42' 21" N, 91d 04' 06" W
MISC: Due to security concerns most visitors take an organized tour
HISTORY AND EXPLORATION
Bonampak was a tributary city closely related to the larger and more powerful site of Yaxchilan located on the banks of the Usumacinta River about 20 miles/32 kms to the northeast. Monumental architecture began to appear in the Late Classic (600-900 A.D.), though there are signs of occupation dating back to the Early Classic (200-600 A.D.).
The construction of many of the main structures and stela were completed by the ruler Chaan Muan II who ruled from approximately 778-806 A.D. The inscriptions reveal the names of rulers, and historical and ritual events concerning their reigns.
The modern re-discovery of Bonampak was announced by two independent explorers named Giles Healy and Carlos Frey in 1946. They were guided there by two local Lacandon Maya. The Lacandon Maya were well aware of the site, as evidence of religious rituals were found among the ruins.
The site of Bonampak is accessed between two unexcavated platforms that lead into the Great Plaza. In the center of the plaza are stelae 1 and 4. On three sides of the plaza are low, mostly unexcavated platforms.
At the far end is located the Acropolis which consists of multiple platform levels terraced into a hillside. It is accessed by a broad central stairway. Half-way up to the first level is small area containing stelae 2 and 3. Located on the first level are three temples.
Temple 1on the south side is known as the Temple of the Paintings, the most important structure at the site. The temple is composed of three separate rooms, all containing beautiful murals. These are thought to have been completed under the direction of Chaan Muan II and depict historical, ceremonial and religious scenes centered around events related to his reign. Unfortunately the earlier explorers used kerosene to bring out the colors of the murals which has had a negative effect upon them.
Room 1 depicts a palace scene ritual involving the king, his wife, son, other dignitaries, and a richly attired procession of musicians. Room 2 depicts different aspects of a vivid battle scene culminating in victory and the display of captured prisoners. Room 3 is devoted to another civic and ritual ceremony.
Temple 3 is a well preserved, unadorned structure on the north side that has its own stairway. Recent excavations have shown this may have been a residence of one of Bonampak’s rulers. Temple 2 is in the center and only its base remains.
Farther up to the top of the pyramid base are located several small temples and a small courtyard. One of these, Temple 6, contains a finely carved lintel of ruler Chaan Muan II.
acropolis w/stela 1 ihiroalfonso
mural detail room 1 inakiherrasti
acropolis google maps
mural detail room 2 inakiherrasti
mural detail inakiherrasti
lintel jacob rus